What is SQL?

Structured Query Language

or SQL is the most widely used programming language for relational databases. It has been standardized in several stages as SQL-92 and SQL-1999, but most database systems have their own extensions. The language covers both the definition of the databases and data manipulation. SQL is a declarative programming language, meaning that you only describes what should happens, but not how.

In SQL there is no distinction between capital and small letters, except for in data values. Comments begin with '--' and continues until the end of the line. SQL commands can be ended with ";"; if there will be more in succession.

For MS SQL look here.